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Science Fiction Subgenres

Last month, we looked at building blocks for the Romance structure. This week, we look at subgenres of Science Fiction.

1. Alternate History Sci Fi could feature time travel as a device, but is considered separate from Time Travel SF. It explores what our world would look like if a specific historical event turned out differently.


2. Apocalyptic Science Fiction explores what happens after an apocalypse caused by war, pandemics, natural disasters, or nuclear weapons. It can explore the moments immediately following it or project the progress into the future.

2. Cyberpunk Science Fiction is a relatively new subgenre in which stories are set in the near-future and explore advances in information technology and the internet, prosthetics, and artificial intelligence. It explores themes of government and control. T
he protagonist is often a reluctant hero.

3. Hard Science Fiction demands rigorous attention to accuracy in your details. Hard-core “science geeks” will be harsh in their criticism if the research isn’t accurate.

4. Military Science Fiction features conflicts between nations or interstellar forces. The protagonist is usually a soldier. These stories explore military technology, procedures, culture, and history.

5. Social/Soft Science Fiction explores topics such as economics, psychology, political science, sociology, and anthropology. They focus more on the characters and the emotions surrounding the cosmic threats. They can explore alternative Utopian or Dystopian societies on earth or in an earth-like place.

6. Space Opera Science Fiction is more action and adventure than thematic exploration. The attention to scientific detail is slim. They feature Fantasy-like heroes on quests to save the world. There can be an element of comedy.

7. Superhuman Science Fiction explores humans with abilities above and beyond normal for the current era. This can be through genetic mutation, genetic tinkering, or prosthetic augmentation. These stories explore what it means to be human and what we lose if we start altering our DNA, bodies, or minds. They examine the line between human and nonhuman.

8. Time Travel Science Fiction is a subgenre that started with Mark Twain's A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court, then came H. G. Wells's The Time Machine. These stories explore the question of what happens if you tinker with the past. Can you or should you? What are the repercussions if you do?

9. Space Western Science Fiction combines SF with the Western structure. It can feature cowboys and aliens or take place in space colonies that resemble the Wild West. 

Next week, we explore the building blocks for the Science Fiction story skeleton. For more information on building the Science Fiction story, check out the newly released Science Fiction Build A Plot Workbook, available in print and e-book.

For more about how to craft plots using conflict check out, Story Building Blocks: The Four Layers of conflict available in print and e-book and check out the free tools and information about the series on my website.

Working with Romance

Several of my past blog posts have dealt with the topic of Romance. Click on the links to continue reading about developing believable lovers, what currency is and how it works, and booby traps to avoid when writing about relationships.

1. Not sure what you want to write? One story, eight options

Dressing Up Your Romance

2. What are the temperament types like as lovers?

Sixteen Lovers Part 1

Sixteen Lovers Part 2

Sixteen Lovers Part 3

Sixteen Lovers Part 4

3. What is emotional currency and how does it manifest in your novel?

Tapping Your Characters' Currency

Currency in Action

4.  Avoid the pitfalls of bad romance.

Subliminal Messages in Romance

The Trouble With Romance

Bad Romance

Toxic Messages in Fiction 1

Toxic Messages in Fiction 2

You can have conflict without severe dysfunction. Heaven knows the world needs less bad bad boy/bad girl role models.


To learn more about plotting the Romance, check out the recently released Romance Build A Plot Workbook available in print and e-book.

Next week, we will examine Science Fiction subgenres.

For more about how to craft plots using conflict check out, Story Building Blocks: The Four Layers of conflict available in print and e-book and check out the free tools and information about the series on my website. 


Obstacles to Love

Last week, we looked at points of connection that bring your lovers together. This week we examine conflicts that drive your lovers apart.

People have different needs, wants, expectations, and ways of going about things. At the center of every conflict is a core need that is threatened. The stakes are emotional, physical, or relationship life or death. They strike at the person’s need for safety and security. It only takes one person to feel unloved or unappreciated when his or her currency is not understood or fulfilled. It is amplified when they expect the other person to interpret what they want instead of asking for it. Make sure the conflicts don’t outnumber the points of connection.

1 Absence due to war or other cause
1 Addiction (of any kind)
1 Differences in age and/or experience
1 Different backgrounds (small town/big city)
1 Bad choices (you know you are doing something wrong and do it anyway)
1 Blaming each other for things (real or imagined)
1 Blending families
1 Broken promises
1 Changing expectations (often after a commitment is made)
1 Children versus no desire for children
1 City versus country
1 Differences in education
1 Differences in financial status, values, management
1 Differences in level of commitment
1 Differences in personality types
1 Differences in social status
1 Different approaches to problems
1 Different beliefs in social justice
1 Different communication styles
1 Different core values
1 Different conditioning
1 Different emotional currencies
1 Different friends
1 Different opinions
1 Different goals
1 Different ethnicity, culture, species, paranormal entities
1 Different levels of intimacy
1 Different leisure activities
1 Different obligations
1 Different planning styles (back-up plans versus winging it)
1 Different politics
1 Differences in religion
1 Different social needs
1 Different values
1 Disparity in income or financial infidelity
1 Divided loyalties
1 Division of Labor
1 Family dysfunction or objections
1 Familiarity breeding contempt
1 Fighting about superficial topics instead of deeper issues
1 Fighting styles
1 Friends that interfere or offend
1 Geography
1 Handling stress
1 How to spend free time
1 Inability to admit being wrong
1 Inability to apologize
1 Insecurities
1 Internal resistance to pairing for life
1 Jobs
1 Legal impediments
1 Lifestyle incompatibility
1 Miscommunication or opposing communication styles
1 Mistakes (you didn’t know you were doing something wrong)
1 Misunderstandings (past or present)
1 Prejudice
1 Pride
1 Past relationships/history
1 Psychological dysfunction or illness
1 Relationship deal-breakers
1 Resentment
1 Secrets and Lies
1 Sexuality forbidden
1 Sexual needs and preferences
1 Shame or guilt over something
1 Societal restrictions or taboos
1 Who controls the money
1 Who contributes financially and how that money is spent
1 Who is in the power position in the relationship

Something to be conscious of when writing Romance is that you can’t have an antagonistic/abusive relationship up until the fourth quarter of the book then suddenly turn it around at the end, or as I call it “the plot called for it” resolution. To portray healthy relationships, there must be more positive moments than negative moments, more things bringing them together than tearing them apart. A good ratio is three positives for every negative.

There must also be resolution to the major conflicts. This happens when characters state their needs and fears, ask for change, get reassurance, make a commitment to change, then show the change happening. It doesn’t require a full chapter to do so. It can be quick moments. Too many novels show the breaking up but not the making up. Every character needs what I call “witnessing.” That is feeling loved, seen, heard, and appreciated. Show the characters displaying these things to each other to heal the story rifts.

Don’t make the differences so great that reconciliation becomes implausible. You can build realistic obstacles to love and conflicts without stretching credibility.

To learn more about plotting the Romance, check out the recently released Romance Build A Plot Workbook available in print and e-book.

Next week, we will examine Science Fiction subgenres.

For more about how to craft plots using conflict check out, Story Building Blocks: The Four Layers of conflict available in print and e-book and check out the free tools and information about the series on my website.

Romance: Points of Connection

In addition to the obstacles that fit normal plots, you have to come up with two important components for the love story: what brings them together and keeps them together and obstacles to drive them apart. The couple faces unique problems which have to be resolved before they can live happily ever after.

Check out Story Building Blocks II: CraftingBelievable Conflict and the companion Build A Cast Workbook to build characters based on personality traits. It is important to understand what different characters need and want and why they do what they do to determine if they will be successful as a couple.

What brings your lovers together and helps them overcome the problems? Choose at least three then the final component that cinches the deal.

~ Ability to apologize
~ Compatible personality traits
~ Compatible romantic styles
~ Dependability
~ Drawing strength from each other
~ Equal emotional intelligence
~ Equal level of intelligence
~ Fulfilling each other’s emotional needs
~ Fulfilling each other’s physical needs
~ Loyalty
~ Lust or physical chemistry
~ Mutual admiration
~ Mutual friends
~ Safety
~ Shared causes (social, political, religious)
~ Shared circle of friends
~ Shared financial habits
~ Shared history (same school, town, etc.)
~ Shared life circumstances
~ Shared life goals (home, work, children)
~ Shared core needs
~ Shared passions or hobbies (sports, travel, books, etc.)
~ Shared personal narratives (both had one sibling, divorced parents, etc.)
~ Shared religion
~ Shared secrets
~ Shared sense of humor
~ Shared views on friendship
~ Shared views on family
~ Shared work venue and/or work ethic

Can you think of others? Next week, we will examine obstacles to love.

To learn more about plotting the Romance, check out the recently released Romance Build A Plot Workbook available in print and e-book.

For more about how to craft plots using conflict check out, Story Building Blocks: The Four Layers of conflict available in print and e-book and check out the free tools and information about the series on my website.

Romance Skeleton

Last week, we examined Romance subgenres. This week, we look at the building blocks that make up the romance skeleton.

The overall story problem is a relationship between two people.

The reader asks: Will they or won't they?

The characters overcome obstacles that keep them from finding each other, connecting, or staying together. A Romance can be mixed with other genres. The framework of this structure is that boy or girl meets, possesses,  or loses the object of their affection and must win, keep, or reclaim them.

In Romance stories, the protagonist is the person looking for love in all the wrong places, has found love and lost it, or is trying desperately to hold onto it. The love interest is the other main character, a co-protagonist of sorts.

The antagonist is the person most intent on keeping the lovers apart. It could be parents who object on religious, societal, or ethnic reasons. It could be an ex-boyfriend or a second person vying for the protagonist’s or love interest’s affection.

Other stories involve an inequality in income, status, ethnicity, etc. that stand in the way of their  romance. There are difficulties with differing family traditions and beliefs based on ethnicity, religion, geography, even rural versus city. They are complicated by pride and misunderstandings.

Romances examine the question of how to effectively love and live with a partner. Two characters can mean well, but take actions that are counter to their partner’s well-being.

A happy ending is expected in this genre. People read these stories to feel good about the potential of relationships. They want to see a couple make it. This plot resonates with our need to be loved and fulfills our desire to live happily ever after.

The girl can find out guy A isn’t what she wanted after all because she has found guy B (her friend), but this is not the genre for an “I’m okay on my own” ending. That story belongs in the Literary aisle. Romance readers want passion and fulfillment and will be very disappointed if they don’t get it.

The difference between a Romance and a romantic subplot in another genre is the overall story problem. In a Romance the relationship is the focus: will they or won't they? In other genres the romantic entanglement is a complicating factor to the genre's overall story problem.

External Conflict scenes focus on the central question, moving toward and away from the two lovers coming or staying together. The protagonist is actively working to solve the overall story problem: the quest for love. These scenes directly involve the protagonist and the love interest. The verbal camera is zeroed in on conflicting and sweet moments between the two of them. There will be moments when the prospects look bleak. There will be moments when the prospects look promising. The protagonist engages in activities to win the girl, or whatever twist you are placing on the traditional love story. He buys her roses or hires her favorite rock band for her birthday party. These are the grandiose gestures, the gestures that fail, and the fight and make-up scenes. This is the type of scene where the protagonist proposes, is rejected, and proposes again. 

Antagonist Conflict scenes focus on the person or forces most invested in keeping the lovers apart. The protagonist has dinner with his girlfriend’s father who tells him he isn’t good enough. His rival trips him up and he misses a date with the object of his desire. These scenes can involve the antagonist, protagonist, and/or love interest depending on the point of view you are following. Most should involve the antagonist or antagonistic forces and
protagonist or love interest in direct conflict or competition. They can show the antagonist wooing the girl behind his friend’s back, depending on the POV. 

Interpersonal Conflict scenes focus on the people who are meddling in the relationship. The protagonist’s mother tells him love is worth fighting for. His coworker tells him his love interest was a centerfold. His sister tells him to drop his loser friends and keep the girl. These scenes can be divided up between the protagonist and love interest interacting with other characters or secondary characters working to thwart them or aid them. These scenes can be the secondary characters reacting to the external conflict scenes or following their own subplots depending on the point of view used. There is often a secondary couple, i.e. the best frenemies, whose romance has complications.

Internal Conflict scenes center on the protagonist’s, and potentially the love interest’s, personal dilemma. The protagonist is cycling in the park debating whether to keep his frustrating job. The love interest is sitting at someone’s baby shower wondering if she is really ready to commit. If the viewpoint shifts between the protagonist and his love interest, you can divide these scenes between them to express their inner turmoil over the relationship. These scenes can involve secondary characters but the focus is on their internal decision making. They can be the reaction scenes to the external conflict scenes.


Next week, we look at the importance of points of connection in a Romance.

To learn more about plotting the Romance, check out the recently released Romance Build A Plot Workbook available in print and e-book.


For more about how to craft plots using conflict check out, Story Building Blocks: The Four Layers of conflict available in print and e-book and check out the free tools and information about the series on my website.

Romance Subgenres

Last week, we explored the Road Trip skeleton. This week, we break down Romance subgenres. Hands down, Romance has one of the largest audiences and there are hundreds of "flavors" from mild to spicy to choose from.

1. Contemporary romance is the highest-selling subgenre and is defined by obstacles to love that occur post World War II to modern day. It is often combined with or related to the term “women’s fiction.”

2. Historical Romance explores obstacles to love that occurred prior to World War II and may feature elements of mystery or “damsel in distress.” It includes categories such as Regency Romance. Few are published in hardcover.

2. Romantic Suspense combines the Romance structure with a subplot from the Mystery or Thriller genres. These are typically contemporary settings, but can be historical settings. Girl and boy meet, one saves the other and they end up as a couple when the ordeal is over.

3. Paranormal Romance combines the Romance structure with a Fantasy or Horror subplot. Normal or otherworldly boy meets girl and faces paranormal threats but lives happily ever after. These typically include vampires, werewolves, ghosts, zombies, or witches. They can also add elements of other subgenres such as Thriller, Mystery or Chick lit, but the focus is on the romance and the paranormal elements.

4. Science Fiction Romance combines the Romance structure with a Science Fiction subplot. The setting is in a future time or a parallel version of our own world, but the focus is on how their relationship survives the obstacles.

5. Romantic Fantasy combines the Romance structure with a Fantasy subplot that features dragons, wizards, fairies, merpeople, etc.

6. Time Travel Romance has a time travel twist, incorporating both contemporary and historical obstacles to love.

7. Christian Romance features chaste and Christian-themed obstacles to love. The story problem is influenced by, and often solved by, the character’s faith.

8. Multicultural Romance mixes ethnic, nationality, and cultural obstacles to love.

9. LGBT Romance can be set any time or place utilizing characters that are homosexual or bisexual and the obstacles they face to their love from self, society, family, etc. They can adopt obstacles from other genres as long as a main character is LGBT.

10. Erotica imbues the romance structure with sexually explicit content.


Next week, we examine the story building blocks for the Romance genre.

Check out the newly released Romance Build A Plot Workbook available in print and e-book.



For more about how to craft plots using conflict check out, Story Building Blocks: The Four Layers of Conflict available in print and e-book and explore the free tools and information about the series on my website.

The Road Trip Story Skeleton

Last week, we examined the Mystery skeleton. This week, we take a look at the building blocks for the Road Trip skeleton.

The overall story problem is a lesson that needs to be learned or a secret that needs to be revealed.

The reader asks: How did this journey change them?

It can be mixed with any other genre with the caveat that two or more people are forced into traveling together. They can be trying to reach somewhere or running from something. It isn’t the end of the journey that matters as much as the friction between the characters and the obstacles they encounter along the way leading to the lesson learned or truth revealed.


The participants can be strangers, friends, lovers, relatives, coworkers, siblings ,or parent and child. The Road Trip often throws two opposites together who must then find common ground. The Road Trip story can be a light and frothy comedy, veer toward serious literary, or incorporate a crime spree as they go.

It can be two strangers who travel together because they have to reach the same destination. Their differing approaches to life teach the other person a valuable lesson about compromise and what is important. 

It can be an estranged mother and daughter who, over the course of the bumps and detours, come to terms with the source of the hurt that drove them apart. It can also be a romantic pair whose relationship is tested as they navigate the complications of their journey. 

Variations on this structure include the treasure hunt and road race where people work together and at crossed purposes to win a prize. 

In Road Trip stories, the protagonist is the person who needs to come to terms with something or learns something important about himself or others.

The antagonistic force usually acts more as foil or sounding board than foe. He will force the protagonist to deal with the story problem by refusing to let the topic go.

External Conflict scenes involve the stops along the way, the obstacles to the physical journey. The characters can be in a car, train, airplane, on bicycles, or on foot. They can be traveling to a specific event like a family reunion or a sick parent’s bedside. They can be trying to reach home for Christmas, but external events conspire against them reaching it: a blizzard hits, the car engine dies, or the road is blocked by an avalanche. These obstacles force them to find another way to complete the journey.

Antagonist Conflict scenes can follow a more benign teacher character rather than an actual “bad guy”. The antagonist supplies the friction that makes the protagonist review whatever opinion, prejudice or need that is causing their personal dilemma. In some versions there can be an actual antagonist who does not want them to reach their destination. The antagonist’s POV is rarely explored in these stories. These are scenes where the antagonist is directly applying pressure to the protagonist to change his way of thinking. If you follow the antagonist with your verbal camera, these scenes will show him plotting to make the journey harder for the protagonist or show him expressing his thoughts to a friend or foe.


Interpersonal Conflict scenes involve the people who help them and cause delays in their journey. They often serve to pose different sides of the thematic argument. If a man is re-evaluating his relationship with his girlfriend, he can meet different types of couples, some are happy and others are poster children for why people shouldn’t get married. The friends and foes may be unwitting participants in the play. They are going about their business, but their business causes a snag in the protagonist’s plans.

Internal Conflict scenes deal with the protagonist’s personal dilemma that the journey forces him to face. The personal dilemma is resolved just before or directly following the end of the physical journey. These scenes show the fluctuation in his thoughts toward and away from the right way of thinking.


For more information on building the Road Trip story, check out the newly released Road Trip Build A Plot Workbook in print and e-book version.

Next week, we examine Romance subgenres.

For more about how to craft plots using conflict check out, Story Building Blocks: The Four Layers of Conflict available in print and e-book and explore the free tools and information about the series on my website.

The Mystery Skeleton


Last week, we looked at Mystery subgenres. This week, we examine the building blocks for the mystery skeleton.

The overall story problem is a crime or puzzle that needs to be solved.


The reader asks: What happened or who did it and will they find out in time?

Not all mysteries are murders, some involve thefts, treason, treasure hunts, puzzles or disappearances. Mysteries are often written as a series with a central protagonist solving separate crimes or puzzles in each book. The case is solved in almost all cases. If the nemesis escapes at the last moment to torment the detective another day, the case that drew them in is considered solved.

Twists where someone other than the detective solves the crime or there wasn’t a crime after all will typically anger the fans of the Mystery genre. That story should be rerouted to the Thriller section. Their expectations are high and they want to be mystified.

In Mystery stories, the protagonist is the amateur or professional sleuth who solves the mystery.



In a Mystery, the antagonist is the criminal the sleuth is chasing or the person most opposed to the secret coming out. He or she should be a cunning foe who goes to great lengths to hide his connection to the crime. Sometimes it is another character that gets 

in the way or makes solving the case harder. It can be a superior, a competitor, a guilty co-worker, or someone in the crime solving business with something to hide or dislike for the protagonist. This is especially true of formulaic or cozy mysteries where no one threatens the sleuth directly. It can be a repeated character such as Moriarity in Sherlock Holmes. 

External Conflict scenes focus directly on the Mystery itself. The protagonist investigates leads, locates the missing weapon, and arrests the bad guy. These are the meeting room scenes where the team discusses progress, the courtroom scenes, or the funeral scenes. These scenes lead up to and include the final climactic confrontation and resolution.

Antagonist Conflict scenes show the protagonist talking to, stalking, or matching wits with the character that serves as the antagonist. In most mysteries, the verbal camera follows the sleuth. Whether in first person or third, the reader knows only what the detective knows. Clues have been dropped and the reader may or may not have picked them up, but in most cases the reader isn’t privy to the POV of the antagonist. However, if you follow the antagonist with your verbal camera, these scenes would show him working his plan. The detective is hot on his trail, but the antagonist stays one step ahead. Or the antagonist works behind the scenes to stall, mislead, or interfere with the investigation.

Interpersonal Conflict scenes reveal how the friends and foes impact the story. The protagonist is misled by the murderer’s sidekicks or by other suspects who have something to hide. The chief tells the cop to find the murderer quickly or he will be demoted. The amateur sleuth is threatened by the victim’s son who is protecting his girlfriend who is the true murderer. Friends and foes tug him toward and pull him away from the trail in a game of hot or cold. Some characters help the sleuth, willingly or unwillingly, intentionally or unintentionally. Others hinder his progress, lie, misdirect, and apply pressure: suspects, witnesses, team members, relatives, love interest, etc.

Internal Conflict scenes reveal the protagonist sitting in the opera house with his wife wondering if they can keep their marriage together while observing the murder suspect across the way. He may be an alcoholic sitting in a bar nursing a soda instead of the beer he longs for. This is the sleuth dealing with his deep wound or dark secret or the cop questioning the morality of his job. Other characters can be present and act as foils, but the topic is his personal dilemma that leads to a point of change.

Check out the newly released Mystery Build A Plot Workbook in print and e-book format.

There are free crime, suspect, and victim profile worksheets available on my website.

Next week, we look at the Road Trip story skeleton.

For more about how to craft plots using conflict check out, Story Building Blocks: The Four Layers of Conflict available in print and e-book and explore the free tools and information about the series on my website.

Mystery Subgenres

Last week, we explored the Literary skeleton, this week we explore Mystery subgenres.

1. Amateur Investigator stories feature a protagonist who is not currently a cop or a PI. They are drawn into the mystery because of personal stakes, incurable curiosity, or a brilliant mind. 

2. Bumbling Detectives mix the Mystery structure with the Comedy structure.

3. Cozy mysteries feature either an amateur or professional sleuth and are usually set in small towns. There is little focus on violence and it avoids gory details.

4. Medical mysteries feature physicians or other medical professionals who encounter and solve murders or mysterious illnesses.

5. Hard Boiled/Noir mysteries feature a gritty, cynical, usually male private investigator, in a violent urban setting. This is the “dame walked into my office” subgenre.

6. Historical mysteries feature clever detectives in many historical settings. They can use historical figures as detective or have a detective investigate stories involving or surrounding historical figures.

7. Howdunit
mysteries begin with the reader "witnessing" the murder, crime, etc. and the story unravels how the perpetrator is caught.

8. Legal Mysteries feature a sleuth who is a lawyer or court official who solves the case on their own when the clueless or corrupt cops fail to do so.

9. Police Procedurals  feature a sleuth who is police detective, officer, forensic technician, medical examiner, etc. who solves the murder or crime. The crimes range from mild to gruesome. The level of gory detail varies.

10. Private Investigator mysteries feature a sleuth (sometimes an ex-cop, soldier, spy or lawyer) who delves into the cases that the cops often can’t, or don’t want, to solve.

11. Supernatural mysteries combine the mystery structure with a Fantasy element.


Next week, we take a look at the building blocks for the Mystery skeleton.

Check out the newly released Mystery Build A Plot Workbook in print and e-book format.

For more about how to craft plots using conflict check out, Story Building Blocks: The Four Layers of Conflict available in print and e-book and explore the free tools and information about the series on my website.